Pleurotus eryngii is a popular mushroom that is cultivated in many places. How is the apricot mushroom cultivated? Here is a detailed introduction to the cultivation techniques of Pleurotus eryngii.
1. Nutrition: Pleurotus eryngii requires a rich source of carbon and nitrogen, especially the richer nitrogen source, the better the mycelial growth and the higher the yield. It is an edible fungus with strong ability to decompose cellulose and lignin. It can grow on the substrate composed of cottonseed husk, wood chips, bagasse, wheat straw and other agricultural and sideline products. It is not necessary to use umbelliferous plants to cultivate. . Adding cottonseed hulls, cottonseed meal, corn flour, and soy flour to the cultivation material can increase the yield of fruiting bodies.
2. Moisture: The water content of the culture material of Pleurotus eryngii is 60-65%, the relative humidity of air is about 60%, the relative humidity of air is 85-90%, and the fruit body formation and development stage The relative humidity requirements are around 85-90% or about 95%. Because it is not suitable to spray water on the mushroom body during cultivation, the water is mainly supplied by the medium, so the water content of the culture material is 65-70%, which is more suitable for the occurrence and growth of fruit bodies.
3. Temperature: Temperature is the most important factor determining the growth and development of Pleurotus eryngii, and it is also the key to the stability of yield. The optimum temperature for the growth of Pleurotus eryngii mycelium is about 25 Â°C. The optimum temperature for the formation of primordia is 10-15 Â° C (16-18 Â° C reported in Taiwan). The temperature of fruiting body development varies from strain to strain. Generally, the suitable temperature is 15-21 Â° C, but some strains are not resistant to high temperature. -17 Â° C is appropriate. More than 18 Â° C is prone to disease. Some strains have a suitable temperature of 20-30 Â° C, while fruit bodies below 8 Â° C do not occur and are difficult to grow.
4. Light: The growth stage of Pleurotus eryngii does not require sunlight, and the formation and development of fruiting bodies requires scattered light. A suitable light intensity is 500-1000 lux.
5. Air: Fresh air is required for mycelial growth and fruiting body development of Pleurotus eryngii. However, carbon dioxide promotes mycelial growth during the vegetative growth phase.
6. pH (pH): The optimum pH for the growth of Pleurotus eryngii mycelium is 6.5-7.5. The growth pH range is 4-8, and the optimum pH value for mushrooming is 5.5-6.5.
Second, the cultivation techniques of Pleurotus eryngii:
(1) Cultivation materials
1. Cultivated raw materials: According to foreign data, the â€œnatural cultivation methodâ€ of Pleurotus eryngii is cultivated for outdoor use, but the yield is low. It can also be cultivated with straw in the outdoor, and the yield is unstable. Cultivation with sterile wood chips or cereal grass, the yield is low. The wood pulp and bran culture materials are cultivated with a biological efficiency of only 20%. If the straw is used as the culture material, the yield is only half of the wood chips. China's agricultural and sideline products are rich in resources, and its by-products such as cotton seed shell, waste cotton group, bagasse, wood chips, soybean sticks, wheat straw, cornstalk, etc. are the main raw materials for cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii. The sub-powder can increase the yield by 10-20%, and the bagasse or wood chips can be used as the main material, and the high yield can be obtained as long as the formula is proper. However, with straw as the main ingredient, even if cotton seed shell is added, the bran and the mushroom are relatively late and the yield is low.
2. Cultivation auxiliary materials: fine rice bran, bran, cottonseed meal, soy flour, corn flour, gypsum, calcium carbonate and sugar are all good auxiliary materials for cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii.
(2) Cultivation methods: The cultivation methods of Pleurotus eryngii are bottle cultivation, box planting, column cultivation and plastic bag cultivation. Some people in foreign countries believe that it is necessary to cover the soil on the basis of the above cultivation methods, but it is not necessary. The most convenient and applicable in China is the cultivation method of plastic bags. The bagging method is as follows:
1. Maternal production: The parental medium can be a common PDA or PSA medium. It takes 8-10 days for the hyphae to fill the test tube.
2. Production of original species and cultivars: The culture medium of the original species and the cultivar is the same, and ordinary wood chips, bran, and cotton seed shell medium can be used. Its formula is:
(1) Wood chips 73% bran 25% sugar 1% calcium carbonate 1%
(2) Cotton husk 90% bran 10% cornmeal 4% phosphate fertilizer 2% lime 2% urea 0.2%
(3) Cotton skin 50% wood chips 30% bran 10% corn noodles 2% lime 1.5%
(4) Corn cob 60% bran 18% wood chips 20% gypsum 2% lime amount
(5) Wood chips 60% bran 18% corn cob 20% gypsum 2% lime amount
It takes about 30-35 days for the original cultivar to grow full of bottles or bags. It is also possible to make original and cultivated varieties of wheat, sorghum, corn, millet and other grains, and the hyphae can grow well in 20 days.
3. Cultivation bag production: The process of making the cultivation bag is the same as that of the mushroom, and will not be described. It is necessary to pay attention to the raw materials must be sieved, so as not to puncture the plastic bag, affecting the success rate of seed production, choose 17*33cm, thick 0.03mm high density low pressure polyethylene plastic bag angled bag, the dry weight of each bag is 400-500 grams. . The wet material is about 1 kg, the material height is 20 cm, and the plastic bag is tightly packed.
The medium is rich in nutrients, which can make the fruit body large and the yield is high. In areas with cotton husks, it can be used as the main raw material or a part of cottonseed meal can increase the yield by 10-20%. After sterilization, the cultivation bag after inoculation is cultured in a culture chamber at about 25 Â° C, and the hyphae can grow to the end in about 30 days.
(3) Cultivation season: the temperature of the oyster mushroom is 10-18 Â°C, and the optimum temperature of the mushroom is 15-18 Â°C. According to the suitable growth temperature of Pleurotus eryngii, it is suitable for the late winter in the northern region and early spring and early summer. .
The characteristic of Pleurotus eryngii is that if the first batch of mushrooms fails to form properly, it will affect the normal mushrooming of the second mushroom, thus affecting the yield. Therefore, both the south and the north should be arranged according to the temperature of the mushroom to suit the season of local cultivation. Generally, it is more suitable for the southern region to be cultivated in late October.
(4) Cultivation places: clean and ventilated rooms can be used to cultivate Pleurotus eryngii.
(5) Cultivation and management of Pleurotus eryngii:
1. Open the bag when the hyphae have not been kinked, open the bag, it is difficult to form the primordium or the primordium is formed slowly, the mushroom is not neat, the economical characteristics of the mushroom body are poor; when the primordium forms or the mushroom buds appear, the bag is opened, and the primordium is differentiated. The mushroom grows normally, the mushroom is neat, and the economic characteristics of the mushroom body are good. If the fruit body is opened when the fruit body has grown up, the deformed mushroom will appear in the bag, and the mushroom growing in severe cases will shrink and rot. Therefore, the bag opening time of the bagged oyster mushroom should be mastered when the hyphae twisted to form the original base and the mushroom buds have appeared, the bag is opened, the bag mouth is unwrapped, and the bag film is folded outward and folded to a height of 2 cm above the material surface. .
2. The temperature of the temperature control mushroom directly affects the formation of the primordium and the growth and development of the fruiting bodies.
When the temperature is lower than 8 Â°C, the primordium is difficult to form, that is, when the long mushroom body stops growing, and the temperature continues to be above l8 Â°C, the differentiated fruit body suddenly grows rapidly and the quality will decrease.
When the temperature is above 20 Â°C, the hyphae turn to vegetative growth, the effect of low temperature stimulation disappears, the primordium stops developing, the nutrients in the mushroom buds fall back and wilting, and the formed young mushrooms will also shrink and die. Therefore, the temperature of the mushroom house should be controlled at 15-18 Â°C, so that the mushroom is quick, the mushroom buds are more, the mushrooms are neat, and it can be harvested in about 15 days.
3. The humidity of the moisturizing mushroom room should be kept at 85%-95%. The humidity is too low, the fruit body will shrink, and the original root will be cracked. In order to improve the air humidity, it is best to spray the water upwards with the sprayer nozzle. Do not spray the water. On the mushroom body, otherwise the fruiting body will turn yellow to affect the quality, and in severe cases it will cause decay.
4. Ventilation requires sufficient oxygen in the original base period, and the CO2 concentration should be reduced to about 0.5%. Otherwise, the primordium does not differentiate and expands into a spherical shape. During the growth and development of the mushroom body, the air is also required to be fresh, and the CO2 concentration is preferably not higher than 0.4%.
If the ventilation is poor during the mushrooming period, the deformed mushroom will appear due to the high CO2 concentration. If it encounters high temperature and high humidity, it will cause the fruit body to rot. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain good ventilation and ventilation conditions in the mushroom house, especially when the mushroom buds occur in a large amount, and timely straighten the film of the bacteria bag to prevent the mushroom buds from being deformed due to lack of oxygen.
5. Light The primordial and fruiting bodies require a certain amount of scattered light during the growth and development period, and the suitable light intensity is 300-500Lx. Note that each floor or row of bed frames should have suitable lighting and no dead ends.
Third, harvesting and yield can be harvested about 15 days after the bud. When the mushroom body is in the shape of a bowling ball, the mushroom cover is not unfolded, and the spores have not been ejected for a suitable harvest period. The harvesting standard should be determined according to the needs of the market: the export of mushrooms requires a mushroom cover diameter of 4-6 cm and a handle length of 6-8 cm; the domestic trade market does not require strict requirements on the mushroom body.
After the head mushroom is collected, the second mushroom can be produced after about 10 days of cultivation. The second mushroom has a small shape, the mushroom stem is short, and the yield is low. Under normal circumstances, the yield of the head mushroom is about 150-400 grams per bag, and the general biological efficiency is 40-80%. If the bag is hydrated or covered with soil in the later stage, the mushroom yield can reach 100% of the weight of the dried material.
4. Soil-covering cultivation According to Wang Shufang et al., the biotransformation rate of the bag-free cover soil was the highest (99.34%) before the mushroom was produced, and the effect of the bag-out soil was the second (78.10%). The conversion rate of non-covered soil was the lowest (59.76%), indicating that the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii was higher than that of non-covered soil, and the soil cover was higher than that of the soil.
V. Pest Control: Trichoderma viride is the main pest of Pleurotus eryngii. Generally, when the temperature rises, the pests and diseases that are easy to occur in the fruiting bodies are bacteria, Trichoderma and mushroom flies. Enhanced ventilation and temperature regulation prevent the occurrence of pests and diseases. Once it happens, take out the bag and handle it in time. Usually pests and diseases are not easy to occur at low temperatures.
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